Vietnam is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula. Vietnam shares its land borders with China to the north, and Laos and Cambodia to the west. Its capital city is Hanoi, while its most populous city is Ho Chi Minh City.

Occupied by China no fewer than four times, the Vietnamese managed to fight off the invaders just as often. At various points during these thousand years of imperial dynasties, Vietnam was ravaged and divided by civil wars and at various times attacked by the Songs, Mongols, Yuans, Chams, Mings, Dutch, Qings, French, Japanese, and the Americans.

Due to its long history as a tributary state of China, as well as several periods of Chinese occupations, Vietnamese culture is heavily influenced by that of Southern China, with Confucianism forming the basis of Vietnamese society.

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